Year 2020 / Volume 112 / Number 11
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Year 2020 / Volume 112 / Number 11

Review

Alcoholic-related liver disease: pathogenesis, management and future therapeutic developments

869-878

Josepmaria Argemi, Meritxell Ventura-Cots, Vikrant Rachakonda, Ramón Bataller,

Alcohol-related liver disease (ALD) is the most frequent cause of advanced chronic liver disease worldwide. Excessive and prolonged alcohol use leads to ALD, which ranges from early forms such as alcoholic fatty liver (AFL) and alcoholic steatohepatitis (ASH), through progressive fibrosis to cirrhosis and the development of hepatocellular cancer (HCC). In addition, patients with underlying ALD and continuous alcohol use can develop alcoholic hepatitis (AH), which presents a rapid progression of liver failure and has a high short-term mortality. Genetic, environmental and epigenetic factors influence the progression of ALD to more severe forms. The pathogenesis of ALD is complex and involves multiple pathways. Recent translational studies have demonstrated a key role of the gut-liver axis and innate immunity in hepatocellular damage and fibrosis. In severe forms, hepatocellular de-differentiation and systemic inflammation contribute to liver failure and multiorgan failure. Alcohol abstinence is the cornerstone of therapy for ALD and the prevention of its complications, but the efficacy and accessibility of psycho-familial-social interventions is still poor and effective public health policies to limit problematic alcohol use need to be implemented. Prednisolone is the only current option for AH, with a transient beneficial effect over placebo. For patients with decompensated ALD-cirrhosis and/or development of HCC, liver transplantation (LT) may be required. In recent years, early LT is being increasingly offered to carefully selected AH patients, with excellent long-term survival. New trials of AH treatments are currently ongoing, and translational studies in human samples are paving the way to new promising targeted therapies.

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Comments

13/01/2021 9:59:36
Revisión muy actualizada. Importante articulo para ponerse al día en ALD. Felicidades


Asociación Española de Ecografía Digestiva Sociedad Española de Endoscopia Digestiva Sociedad Española de Patología Digestiva
The Spanish Journal of Gastroenterology is the official organ of the Sociedad Española de Patología Digestiva, the Sociedad Española de Endoscopia Digestiva and the Asociación Española de Ecografía Digestiva
© 2021 The Spanish Journal of Gastroenterology